Callaway Nuclear Power Plant

The Callaway Nuclear Power Plant located on a 5,228-acre (21 km²) site in Callaway County, Missouri, near Fulton, Missouri. It began operating on December 19, 1984. The plant, which is the state's only commercial nuclear unit, has one 1,190-megawatt Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor and a General Electric turbine-generator. It is owned by the Ameren Corporation and operated by Ameren Missouri.

Power Output

According to Ameren, Callaway Nuclear Power Plant produces about 19 percent of Ameren Missouri's power. In 2001, Callaway set a plant record for capacity utilization, producing 101.1 percent of its rated electrical output, ranking it among the world's top reactors, according to the Energy Information Administration. The plant produces 1,190 megawatts of net power, and has run continuously for over 500 days between refuelings. Callaway is one of 26 nuclear power plants in the United States to achieve a continuous run of over 500 days.

On November 19, 2005, its workers completed the replacement of all four steam generators in 63 days, 13 hours, setting a world record for a four-loop plant.

Cooling Tower

The cooling tower at Callaway Nuclear Power Plant is 553 feet tall, 77 feet shorter than the St Louis Gateway Arch. It is 430 feet wide at the base, and is constructed from reinforced concrete. It cools approximately 585,000 gallons of water per minute when the plant is operating at full capacity, and about 15,000 gallons of water are lost out the top from evaporation. Another 5,000 gallons of water are sent to the Missouri River as "blowdown" to flush solids from the cooling tower basin. All water lost through evaporation or blowdown is replaced with water from the river, located five miles from the plant. The temperature of the water going into the cooling tower is 125° Fahrenheit, and the tower cools it to 95°.

Unit 2

On July 28, 2008, Ameren Missouri submitted an application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), seeking a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) for a potential second unit. According to Thomas R. Voss, president and chief executive officer of Ameren Missouri, "Given projections for a nearly 30 percent increase in demand for power in Missouri in the next two decades, we believe we will need to build a large generating plant to be on line in the 2018–2020 timeframe." Ameren Missouri is considering building a 1,600-MW Areva Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR).

In April 2009, Ameren Missouri canceled plans to build a second reactor at its mid-Missouri nuclear power plant. A key stumbling block was a law barring utilities from charging customers the costs of a new power plant before it starts producing electricity. The new nuclear plant would have cost at least $6 billion.

Callaway Nuclear Power Plant
Country United States
Locale Auxvasse Township, Callaway County, near Steedman, Missouri
Status Operational
Commission date December 19, 1984
Licence expiration October 18, 2024
Operator(s) Ameren Missouri
Architect(s) Bechtel Corporation

Reactor information
Reactors operational 1 x 1,190 MW
Reactors planned 1 x 1,600 MW
Reactor type(s) pressurized water reactor
Reactor supplier(s) Westinghouse (Unit 1)

Power station information
Generation units 1 General Electric

Power generation information
Annual generation 9,372 GW·h

Columbia Nuclear Generating Station

The Columbia Nuclear Generating Station, is a nuclear power station located on the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, 12 miles (20 km) NW of Richland, Washington. Its site covers 1,089 acres (4.4 km²) of Benton County, Washington.

Columbia Nuclear Generating Station is owned and operated by Energy Northwest, a consortium of Pacific Northwest public utilities. Energy Northwest's original name was the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Construction began in late 1975, and the NRC issued an operational license for the plant to begin producing power in March, 1984.

In 2000, WPPSS changed its name to Energy Northwest, and later the plant's name was changed from WNP-2 (Washington Nuclear Power unit number 2) to Columbia Generating Station. Of the five commercial reactors originally planned by WPPSS for the State of Washington, this reactor was the only one completed (WNP-1 may yet be completed but WNP-4 and WNP-3 and WNP-5 were abandoned).

The reactor provides Washington with 9% of the state's electrical generation capacity. With the 1992 retirement of Oregon's Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, it is the only commercial nuclear power reactor remaining in the Pacific Northwest. The nearest operating reactor is the Diablo Canyon Power Plant located on the Southern California beach in San Luis Obispo County, California. The plant's sole reactor is a General Electric Type 5. The plant had a new Westinghouse Electric turbine-generator installed in 1999, which brought its output rating to 1,150 MWe.

The Columbia Generating Station features six low-profile fan-driven cooling towers. Each tower cascades warmed water, a byproduct of water heat exchanging with steam after leaving a turbine, down itself and subsequently cools the warmed water via a combination of evaporation and heat exchange with the surrounding air. Some water droplets fall back to earth in the process, thereby creating a hoar frost in the winter. At times, the vapor cloud from the cooling towers can reach 10,000 feet (3 km) in height and can be seen at a great distance. Replacement water for the evaporated water is drawn from the nearby Columbia River.

Columbia Nuclear Generating Station
Country United States
Locale Benton County, near Richland, Washington
Status Operational
Construction began 1973–83
Commission date December 13, 1984
Licence expiration December 20, 2023
Operator(s) Energy Northwest
Architect(s) Burns & Roe

Reactor information
Reactors operational 1 x 1150 MW
Reactor type(s) boiling water reactor
Reactor supplier(s) General Electric

Power station information
Generation units Westinghouse Electric

Power generation information
Annual generation 8,109 GW·h