Tarapur Atomic Power Plant

Tarapur Atomic Power Plant is located in Tarapur, Maharashtra (India). It was initially constructed with two boiling water reactor (BWR) units of 160 MW each by Bechtel and GE under the 1963 123 Agreement between India, the United States, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Units 1 and 2 were brought online for commercial operation on October 28, 1969. These were the first of their kind in Asia. More recently, an additional two pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) units of 540 MW each were constructed by L & T and Gammon India, seven months ahead of schedule and well within the original cost estimates. Unit 3 was brought online for commercial operation on August 18, 2006, and unit 4 on September 12, 2005.

With a total capacity of 1400 MW, Tarapur Atomic Power Plant is the largest nuclear power station in India. The facility is operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited. The personnel operating the power plant live in a residential complex called T. A. P. S. colony, which is a fifteen minute drive from Boisar, the nearest railway station. The residential complex was also constructed by Bechtel to house both Indian and American employees. Due to this, the residential complex had a very American small-town look, with neat sidewalks, spacious houses, a club with tennis courts, swimming pool, a commissary etc. While the original American residents have long gone, the colony continues to thrive.

The residential colony now features 3 central schools run under Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES). The local beach at Chinchani is approximately 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the colony.

Tarapur Atomic Power Station
Country India
Construction began 1962
Commission date October 28, 1969
Operator(s) Nuclear Power Corporation of India LTD.

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 160 MW
2 x 540 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 4,829 GW·h
Net generation 71,188 GW·h

Angra Nuclear Power Plant

Angra Nuclear Power Plant is Brazil's sole nuclear power plant. It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) on the Itaorna Beach in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It consists of two Pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with a net output of 657 MWe, first connected to the power grid in 1985 and Angra II, with a net output of 1,350 MWe, connected in 2000. Work on a third reactor, Angra III, with a projected output of 1,245 MWe, began in 1984 but was halted in 1986. Work started again on 1 June 2010 for entry into service in 2015.

The Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto complex is administrated by Eletronuclear, a state company with the monopoly in nuclear power generation in Brazil. The complex employs some 3,000 people and generates another 10,000 indirect jobs in Rio de Janeiro state.

Angra I was purchased from Westinghouse of the USA (its sister power plant is Krško Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia), and the purchase did not include the transfer of sensitive reactor technology. As a result, Angra II was built with German technology, as part of a comprehensive nuclear agreement between Brazil and West Germany signed by President Ernesto Geisel in 1975. The complex was designed to have three PWR units with a total output of around 3,000 MWe and was to be the first of 4 nuclear plants that would be built up to 1990.

Future developments

The development of Angra Nuclear Power Plant 3 began in 1984 as a a KWU pressurized water reactor but was halted in 1986. About 70% of the plant's equipment was purchased in 1985 but has been in storage ever since, consuming US$50 million a year in maintenance costs. In June 2007, restarting of construction was approved by the National Council for Energy Policy. President approved the construction in July 2007. In December 2008, Eletronuclear signed an industrial cooperation agreement with Areva. On 31 May 2010, the National Nuclear Energy Commission granted a licence for construction of the third reactor. Construction of the reactor with capacity of 1,270 MWe begun on 1 June 2010 and it should be operational by 2015.


The problems with Angra I and II construction relate to a number of technical issues during initial construction, and the following political fallout. Angra dos Reis city and its neighbors are composed of medium high and high income population, its economy relies in great part on tourism and above all the region is regarded by many as a sanctuary for marine life.

The name of the site where the power plant was built, called Itaorna, means "rotten stone" in the native Tupinamba language; this fact was unknown to the engineers before construction and became a focus of many jokes in Brazil.

The negative media impact of Angra caused the shelving of all other projected nuclear plants in Brazil (Iguape, Peruíbe and São Sebastião).

Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Country Brazil
Construction began 1971
Commission date January 1, 1985
Operator(s) Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Eletronuclear

Reactor information
Reactors operational 1 x 657 MW
1 x 1350 MW
Reactors under construction 1 x 1,270 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 12,983 GW·h
Net generation 105,963 GW·h

Ascó Nuclear Power Plant

Ascó Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power station at Ascó in Spain. It consists of two PWRs of 933 and 943 MWe.

An INES level 2 accident occurred on November 2007 at the Unit 1 reactor. The Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) was not advised of the leak until April 4. Although the leak happened in November, particles were not detected outdoors until March 2008.

CSN initially estimated that total radioactivity detected was about 235,000 becquerels. The council operating the plant later estimated that a maximum of 84.95 million becquerels of radioactivity were spilled. CSN announced it was changing the classification of the leak from Level 1 to Level 2 because of "inadequate control of radioactive material and of providing incomplete and deficient information to the controlling body." An investigation was opened and the director of the plant was fired.
Ascó Nuclear Power Plant
Official name Central nuclear de Ascó
Country Spain
Construction began 1971
Commission date December 10, 1984 (1984-12-10)
Licence expiration 2023 (Asco 1) and 2025 (Asco 2)
Owner(s) Endesa
Operator(s) Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV) A.I.E. (ENDESA/ID)

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 totaling 2060 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 15,474 GW·h
Net generation 307,970 GW·h

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant is a large nuclear power station in Lianyungang prefecture level city, Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. It is considered to be the largest nuclear plant on mainland China. It is located on the coast of the Yellow Sea approximately 30 kilometers east of Lianyungang proper.

The Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant of two reactor units each rated at 1,000 MW capacity and constructed by Russia's Atomstroyexport. The first reactor began full operations in 2006 and the second in 2007.

Construction commenced on 20 October 1999 for the first unit, and on 20 October 2000 for the second reactor unit. The first reactor went critical on 20 December 2005. Construction of the second reactor finished in May 2007 and commercial operation began in August.

On 23 November 2010, Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation signed a contract with Atomstroyexport according to which Atomstroyexport will supply 1060 MWe VVER-1000 reactors for units 3 and 4.

Both units use VVER pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology supplied from Russia. Together they cost approximately US$3.3 billion. The units are the Russian standard reactor type VVER-1000/392 (also carries the designation of VVER-1000/428) adapted specifically for China. This reactor version was equipped with Siemens control systems and received additional protection from earthquakes.

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant
Country People's Republic of China
Status Operational
Construction began 1999
Commission date May 17, 2006
Owner(s) Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 1000
Reactors planned 4 x 1000 MW
2 x 1200 MW
Reactor type(s) PWR
Reactor supplier(s) Atomstroyexport

Power generation information
Annual generation 1,235 GW·h
Net generation 1,235 GW·h

Nuclear Reactors

The Tianwan nuclear power plant has two operating units and six planned future reactors:

Unit Reactortype Net
Tianwan-1 VVER-1000/428 (AES-91) 933 MW 1,000 MW 17.05.2007
Tianwan-2 VVER-1000/428 (AES-91) 933 MW 1,000 MW 16.08.2007
Tianwan-3 VVER-1000 1,000 MW
Tianwan-4 VVER-1000 1,000 MW
Tianwan-5 VVER-1000 1,000 MW
Tianwan-6 VVER-1000 1,000 MW
Tianwan-7 VVER-1200
1,200 MW
Tianwan-8 VVER-1200
1,200 MW