Doel Nuclear Power Station

The Doel Nuclear Power Station is one of the two nuclear power plants in Belgium. The plant lies on the bank of the Scheldt, near the village of Doel in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The Belgian energy corporation Electrabel is the plant's largest stakeholder. The plant employs 800 workers and covers an area of 80 hectares.

Reactors of Doel Nuclear Power Station

The plant consists of four second-generation pressurized water reactors with a total capacity of 2839 MWe, making it the second largest nuclear power plant in Belgium, after Nuclear Plant Tihange. Its four units are rated as follows:

  • Doel 1 : 392 MWe
  • Doel 2 : 433 MWe
  • Doel 3 : 1006 MWe
  • Doel 4 : 1008 MWe

Doel 1 and 2 came online in 1975, while Doel 3 and 4 came online in 1982 and 1985, respectively.

Cooling towers of Doel Nuclear Power Station

With a height of 176 meters, the two cooling towers are the most visible structure in the Port of Antwerp. Due to its proximity to the Dutch-Belgian border, the towers and the accompanying vapor can be seen in large parts of Dutch provinces of Zeeland and western North Brabant. Since 1995, one of the cooling towers has hosted a nest of peregrine falcons.


Powerlines

One of the outgoing powerlines crosses Schelde River in a remarkable manner, see Doel Schelde Powerline Crossing.

Doel Nuclear Power Station
Country Belgium
Locale Doel
Coordinates 51°19′29″N 04°15′31″E / 51.32472°N 4.25861°E / 51.32472; 4.25861 / 51.32472; 4.25861
Construction began 1969
Commission date 15 February 1975
Owner(s) Indivision Doel (EBES, INTERCOM, UNERG)
Operator(s) Electrabel M.V. Nucleaire Produktie

Reactor information
Reactors operational 1 x 392 MW
1 x 433 MW
1 x 1006 MW
1 x 1008 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 21,670 GW·h
Net generation 515,257 GW·h

Tihange Nuclear Power Station

The Tihange Nuclear Power Station, along with Doel Nuclear Power Station, is one of the two large-scale nuclear power plants in Belgium. It is located on the right bank of the Meuse River in the Belgian district of Tihange, part of Huy municipality in the Walloonian province of Liège. The primary stakeholder in the plant is the Belgian energy company Electrabel.

Reactors

The plant has three pressurized water reactors, with a total capacity of 2985 MWe and makes up 52% of the total Belgian nuclear generating capacity. Its units are rated as follows:

  • Tihange 1: 962 MWe
  • Tihange 2: 1008 MWe
  • Tihange 3: 1015 MWe

South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant

The South Ukraine Nuclear Power Station is a nuclear power station in Ukraine.

South Ukraine Nuclear Power Station is located near the city of Yuzhnoukrainsk in Mykolaiv province, approximately 350 kilometers (200 miles) south of Kiev. The nuclear power station has three VVER-1000 reactors and a net generation capacity of 2,850 megawatts (MW). It is at present the second largest of five nuclear power stations in Ukraine.

From South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant a 750 kV powerline runs to Isaccea, Romania; however this is largely dismantled or ruined.

Since 2005 Energoatom has been using the third power unit of the Yuzhnoukrainsk NPP to test nuclear fuel produced by Westinghouse, mixed with Russian assemblies. In August 2005, the third reactor of the Yuzhnoukrainsk NPP was loaded with the first six experimental fuel assemblies produced by Westinghouse.

In September 2009, Westinghouse transferred a further 42 fuel assemblies to Energoatom for the third reactor of the Yuzhnoukrainsk NPP. The main supplier of fuel for nuclear power plants in Ukraine is currently TVEL, with whom NNEGC in 1997 signed a contract for the supply of fresh nuclear fuel for Ukrainian WMR until 2010.

Energoatom operates all four active nuclear power plants in Ukraine. Zaporizhzhia, Yuzhnoukrainsk, Rivne and Khmelnytsky stations have 15 generating units in total. Equipped with water-moderated reactors, they have a total installed electrical capacity of 13.835 MW.

South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant
Country Ukraine
Coordinates 47°49′0″N 31°13′0″E / 47.816667°N 31.216667°E / 47.816667; 31.216667 / 47.816667; 31.216667
Construction began 1975
Commission date October 18, 1983
Owner(s) Energoatom
Operator(s) National Nuclear Energy Generating Company

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3 x 1,000 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 16,746 GW·h
Net generation 329,175 GW·h

Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant

Smolensk Nuclear power station, or Smolensk NPP, is a nuclear power station in Russia. It is located in the Smolensk region, in Desnogorsk province, approximately 150 km from Smolensk, 120 km from Bryansk and 320 km from Moscow. Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant is the biggest NPP in the Nechernozem region of Russia.

Smolensk Nuclear power station operates three RBMK-1000 reactors (1000MW water-cooled graphite-moderated channel-type reactors). The plant was supposed to have four units but the construction of the 4th reactor was stopped in 1986 following the Chernobyl disaster.

All the units are equipped with emergency response systems, which can prevent release of radioactive material into the environment even in case of serious accident; for example breakage of pipes in the reactor cooling circuit. The reactor cooling circuit is housed in hermetic reinforced concrete boxes that can withstand a force of 4.5 kg/cm2.

Unit Reactor type Net
capacity
Gross
capacity
Smolensk - 1 RBMK-1000 925 MW 1,000 MW
Smolensk - 2 RBMK-1000 925 MW 1,000 MW
Smolensk - 3 RBMK-1000 925 MW 1,000 MW
Smolensk - 4 RBMK-1000 925 MW 1,000 MW
Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant
Country Russia
Coordinates 54°10′8.98″N 33°14′47.89″E / 54.1691611°N 33.2466361°E / 54.1691611; 33.2466361
Status Operational
Construction began October 1, 1975
Commission date December 9, 1982
Operator(s) Energoatom

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3 x 1000 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 5093 GW·h
Net generation 118,699 GW·h

Perry Nuclear Power Plant

The Perry Nuclear Power Plant is located on a 1,100-acre (450 ha) site on Lake Erie, 40 miles (65 km) northeast of Cleveland in North Perry, Ohio, USA. The nuclear power plant is owned by First Energy Nuclear Operating Corporation.

Perry was the 100th power reactor licensed in the United States.

The reactor of Perry Nuclear Power Plant is a General Electric BWR-6 boiling water reactor design, with a Mark III containment design. The original core power level of 3,579 megawatts thermal was increased to 3,758 megawatts thermal in 2000, making Perry one of the largest BWRs in the United States.

Built at a cost of $6 billion, Perry-1 is one of the most expensive power plants ever constructed.


Perry Nuclear Power Plant was originally designed as a two-unit installation, but construction on Unit 2 was suspended in 1985 and formally canceled in 1994. At the time of cancellation, all of the major buildings and structures for the second unit were completed, including the 500-foot-tall (150 m) cooling tower. It is possible that a second unit could be constructed on the site, but current economical and regulatory conditions are not conducive to doing so (in addition to back taxes that would be due to the "abandon in place" designations on many objects in Unit 2). At any rate, the second unit would have to be re-built from the ground up to accommodate the newer reactor design that would almost certainly be installed.

On Sunday March 28, 2010, there was a fire in a lubrication system for one of the water pumps that feeds water for generation of steam. Reactor power was reduced to 70% as a safety precaution, and the fire was extinguished in less than three hours. Two plant fire brigade personnel were brought to a local hospital for "heat stress" following the fire. No customers lost power during this event.

In addition to Perry Nuclear Power Plant, First Energy also owns and operates the Davis-Besse and Beaver Valley nuclear plants.


Unit 1 Unit 2
Reactor Type BWR-6 BWR-6
Reactor Manufacturer General Electric General Electric
Turbine Manufacturer General Electric General Electric
Thermal Power 3,758 megawatts Unit canceled in 1994
Electrical Output 1,260 megawatts Unit canceled in 1994
Transmission System Connection 345,000 volts Unit canceled in 1994
Construction Permit Issued May 3, 1977 May 3, 1977 (construction suspended in 1985)
Initial Criticality June, 1986 Unit canceled in 1994
First Electrical Generation November 13, 1986 Unit canceled in 1994
Operational Date November 18, 1987 Unit canceled in 1994
Expiration of Original License March 18, 2026 Unit canceled in 1994

Ownership

The reactor is owned and operated by FirstEnergy. Four of its subsidiaries each own a share in the plant:

Company Percentage Notes
Cleveland Electric Illuminating 44.9%
Ohio Edison 30%
Pennsylvania Power 5.2% Ohio Edison subsidiary
Toledo Edison 19.9%

Perry Nuclear Power Plant
Country United States
Locale Perry, Ohio
Coordinates 41°48′3″N 81°8′36″W / 41.80083°N 81.14333°W / 41.80083; -81.14333 / 41.80083; -81.14333
Status Operational
Commission date November 18, 1987
Licence expiration March 18, 2026
Construction cost $6 billion
Owner(s) Cleveland Electric (44.9%),
Ohio Edison (30%),
Toledo Edison (19.9%),
Pennsylvania Power (5.2%)
Operator(s) FirstEnergy Nuclear
Architect(s) Gilbert Associates

Reactor information
Reactors operational 1 x 1231 MW
Reactors cancelled 1 x 1231 MW
Reactor type(s) boiling water reactor
Reactor supplier(s) General Electric

Power generation information
Annual generation 8,058 GW·h

Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant

The Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant is located about 200 kilometres (120 mi) north west of Moscow, in Tver Oblast near the town of Udomlya. Owner and operator of the plant is the state enterprise Energoatom. Kalinin Nuclear Power Station supplies the majority of electricity in the Tver region and additionally serves Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Vladimir. In 2005 the nuclear power station fed 17.3 TWh (62,000 TJ) into the grid. The station's four 150 metres (490 ft) tall cooling towers are local landmarks. They were manufactured in 96 concrete sections each.

By March 2009 the containment structure of the new Kalinin Unit 4 reactor was nearly complete. This reactor is planned to become operational in 2011.

The Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant has four nuclear reactor units:

Unit Reactor type Net
capacity
Gross
capacity
Commercial
Operation
Shutdown
Kalinin - 1 VVER-1000/338 950 MW 1,000 MW 1985/06/12 2014
Kalinin - 2 VVER-1000/338 950 MW 1,000 MW 1987/03/03 2016
Kalinin - 3 VVER-1000/320 950 MW 1,000 MW 2005/11/08 2043
Kalinin - 4 VVER-1000/320 950 MW 1,000 MW - -


Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant
Country Russia
Coordinates 57°54′20″N 35°03′37″E / 57.90556°N 35.06028°E / 57.90556; 35.06028 / 57.90556; 35.06028
Status Operational
Construction began February 1, 1977
Commission date June 12, 1985
Operator(s) Energoatom

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3 x 1000 MW
Reactors under construction 1 x 1000 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 20,106 GW·h
Net generation 261,722 GW·h

Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant

Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Forsmark, Sweden, and also the site of the Swedish Final repository for radioactive operational waste. It is operated by a subsidiary of Vattenfall.

Forsmark Nuclear Reactors

Forsmark NPP has three Boiling water reactors:

  • F1 with an ABB Atom BWR 69 at 2928 MW thermal and 1010 MWe net was first connected to the grid on 5 June, 1980, and commenced commercial operation on 10 December, 1980. It has two turbo-alternators.
  • F2 with an ABB Atom BWR 69 at 2928 MW thermal and 1010 MWe net was first grid connected on 15 December, 1980 and commenced commercial operation on 7 July, 1981. It is a twin of Unit 1.
  • F3 with an ABB Atom BWR 75 at 3300 MW thermal and 1190 MWe net and was first grid connected on 3 March, 1985 and commenced commercial operation on 21 August, 1985. It is a later design with one turbo-alternator.

Other facilities

West of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant, there is the static inverter of HVDC Fenno-Skan.

Nuclear Waste disposal

Forsmark is the proposed site for the long-term burial of all spent fuel from Swedish nuclear power reactors, using the KBS-3 process. The new site will be located next to the already existing final repository for radioactive operational waste, but the two will not be connected with each other.

April 1986

On April 27, 1986, unusually high levels of radiation were detected in workers' clothing at this plant, prompting concerns of a radiation leak. No leak was found, however, and the radiation was subsequently determined to have originated from Chernobyl, where a reactor had exploded the previous day. Chernobyl is approximately 1,100 km from this power plant.

Detection of rise of environmental radioactivity at Forsmark was crucial in leading Soviet authorities, originally attempting to cover up the disaster, to admit that a nuclear incident had taken place in Pripyat. This, in turn, was the immediate trigger for evacuation of Pripyat, which Soviets had considered unnecessary for more than 36 hours following the explosions.

July 2006 incident

On 25 July 2006, one reactor was shut down after an electrical fault. According to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspection authority SKI the incident was rated 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. According to Lars-Olov Höglund, a former construction chief at Vattenfall, it is the most serious nuclear incident in the world since the Chernobyl disaster and it was pure luck that prevented a meltdown. Both the SKI and the safety chief of Forsmark power plant disagree with that opinion and state that the incident was serious but the description provided by Höglund was incorrect and there was no risk of a meltdown.

Lars-Olov Höglund has been involved in a personal legal dispute with Forsmark Nuclear powerplant for several years.

However, SKI also writes about the failing safety system in that finding out that safety functions proved to be linked together in a delicate way is extremely serious.

February 2007 shutdown

On February 3, two units at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant were shut down to inspect a rubber seal in one of the safety systems. On Forsmark 1 this seal needed to be replaced, a job that would take approximately one month. Unit 2 was cleared by the regulator SKI and was free to restart.

In January an internal report made by a few employees at Forsmark who were concerned over a "degrading safety culture" was leaked to media who ran an extensive story on it. In the storm following the report the Forsmark CEO chose to resign. Forsmark was already under way to implement a 60-point program designed to improve safety culture, designed shortly after the event in July 2006.

Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant
Country Sweden
Locale Forsmark
Coordinates 60°24′12″N 18°10′0″E / 60.40333°N 18.166667°E / 60.40333; 18.166667 / 60.40333; 18.166667
Status Operational
Commission date 1980
Operator(s) Vattenfall

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 2928 MW
1 x 3300 MW
Reactor type(s) Boiling water reactor

Power generation information
Net generation 22300 GW·h

Chooz Nuclear Power Plant

The Chooz Nuclear Power Station (Centrale nucléaire de Chooz) lies in the municipality of Chooz in the Ardennes department, France, on the Meuse close to the border with Belgium, between the French city of Charleville-Mézières and the Belgian municipality of Dinant.

The first reactor Chooz A, an early PWR design, was shut down in 1991 after an operational life of 22 years.

Two units of the N4 reactor design are currently operation, Chooz B1 and Chooz B2. Designed for a net power output of 1450 MWe, power was uprated to 1500 MWe in 2003.

A fourth nuclear reactor, of the EPR type, is under study by EDF.

The Chooz Nuclear Power Station employs around 700 full time workers.

The Chooz Nuclear Power Station reactors were a source of neutrinos for the CHOOZ neutrino oscillation experiment; a new experiment, Double CHOOZ, is currently under construction nearby.

Chooz Nuclear Power Plant
Official name Centrale Nucléaire de Chooz
Country France
Locale Chooz, Ardennes
Coordinates 50°5′24″N 4°47′22″E / 50.09°N 4.78944°E / 50.09; 4.78944 / 50.09; 4.78944
Status Operational
Construction began 1960
Commission date April 15, 1967 (April 15, 1967)
Decommission date 1991 (Chooz A)
Operator(s) EDF
Developer(s) Societé d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes
Constructor(s) Bouygues

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 1560 MW
Reactors decom. 1 x 320 MW
Reactor type(s) PWR
Reactor supplier(s) Framatome

Turbine information
Manufacturer(s) Alstom

Power generation information
Installed capacity 3,120 MW
Annual generation 19,306 GW·h
Net generation 195,081 GW·h
As of 10 November 2010
Reactors
Unit Type Net power Total power
Chooz - A (Ardennes) PWR 310 MW 320 MW
Chooz - B 1 PWR 1500 MW 1560 MW
Chooz - B 2 PWR 1500 MW 1560 MW

Civaux Nuclear Power Plant

The Civaux Nuclear Power Plant is located in the commune of Civaux (Vienne) at the edge of Vienne River between Confolens (55 km upstream) and Chauvigny (16 km downstream), and 34 km south-east of Poitiers.

Civaux Nuclear Power Plant has two operating units that were the precursors to the European Pressurized Reactor, being the "N4 stage". Designed for a net power output of 1450 MWe per unit, power was uprated to 1495 MWe in 2003. Water from the Vienne River is used for cooling.

As of 2004, 692 people work at the plant, with 12.9% women.

On May 12, 1998 there was a leak on an elbow in a pipe of the RCS. Water leaked out at the rate of 30 cubic meters per hour. It was classified as 2 on the INES scale.

REACTORS

Unit Type Net power Total power Commercial operation
CIVAUX-1 PWR 1495 MW 1561 MW 2002/01/29
CIVAUX-2 PWR 1495 MW 1561 MW 2002/04/23
Civaux Nuclear Power Plant
Official name Centrale Nucléaire de Civaux
Country France
Locale Civaux (Vienne)
Coordinates 46°27′24″N 0°39′10″E / 46.45667°N 0.65278°E / 46.45667; 0.65278 / 46.45667; 0.65278
Status Operational
Construction began 1988
Commission date 2002
Operator(s) EDF
Constructor(s) Bouygues

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 1561 MW
Reactor type(s) PWR
Reactor supplier(s) Framatome

Turbine information
Manufacturer(s) Alstom

Power generation information
Installed capacity 3,122 MW
Annual generation 21,458 GW·h
Net generation 130,417 GW·h

Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant

The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur and Athens, Alabama, on the north side (right bank) of Wheeler Lake. The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is named after a ferry that operated at the site until the middle of the 20th century. The site has three General Electric boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear generating units and is owned entirely by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant was TVA's first nuclear power plant; its approval occurred on June 17, 1966 and construction began in September 1966. In 1974, the time of its initial operation, it was the largest nuclear plant in the world. It was the first nuclear plant in the world to generate more than 1 gigawatt of power.

In 2006, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) renewed the licenses for all three reactors, extending them for an additional twenty years.

Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant Unit One

Unit One is a 1,065 MWe BWR built by General Electric. Construction started on Unit One September 12, 1966 and originally came online on December 20, 1973. It is licensed to operate through December 20, 2033. However, Unit One was shut down for a year after a fire in 1975 damaged the unit. The unit was subsequently repaired and operated from 1976 through 1985, when all three Browns Ferry units were shut down for operational and management issues. Units Two and Three were restarted in 1991 and 1995, respectively.

Starting in 2002, TVA undertook to restore Unit One to operational status, spending $1.8 billion to do so. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the restart of Unit 1 on May 15, 2007 and the reactor was brought up to criticality on May 22 for the first time since March 3, 1985. During initial testing after restart, on May 24, 2007, a leaky hydraulic control pipe in the turbine hall burst, spilling about 600 gallons of non-radioactive fluid, and the newly restarted reactor was temporarily powered down. Reactor power-up and tests resumed on May 27 and the unit started supplying power to the electricity supply grid on June 2, 2007, reaching full power on June 8. The Browns Ferry restart is expected to pay for itself in five years.

Unit One can generate 1,155 MW of electricity, and TVA plans an uprate to 1,280 MWe for this and the other two reactors.

Unit One fire

The March 22, 1975 fire started when a worker using a candle to search for air leaks accidentally set a temporary cable seal on fire. The fire spread through the wall from the temporary seal. The presence of the fire on the other side of the wall was not recognized until significant damage had been done to the station's control cabling.

From NRC IE BULLETIN NO. - 75-04A:

This later resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission making significant additions to the standards for fire protection through the publication of 10CFR50.48 and Appendix R. According to the Nuclear Information and Resource Service, the newly-restarted Unit One does not comply with these standards. Unit Three was not affected by the accident. This event was pivotal not just for firestopping in the nuclear field, but also in commercial and industrial construction. While the nuclear field went to installations of silicone foam, a wider array of firestops became prevalent in non-nuclear construction.

In a 2005 analysis of significant nuclear safety occurrences in the US, the NRC concluded that the fire at Browns Ferry was the most likely (excluding the actual accident at TMI) "precursor" incident to have led to a nuclear accident in the event of a subsequent failure.

Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant Unit Two

Unit Two is a 1,113 MWe BWR built by General Electric which originally came online on August 2, 1974, and is licensed to operate through June 28, 2034. Unit Two generated 8.911261 TW·h of electricity in 2003, achieving a capacity factor of 94.1%.

During a drought in August 2007, Unit Two was shut down for one day because water temperature in the Tennessee River rose too high for the water to be used for cooling and then discharged back into the river.

Beginning in 2005 Unit 2 was loaded with BLEU (Blended Low Enriched Uranium) recovered by the DOE from weapons programs. This fuel contains quantities of U-236 and other contaminants because it was made from reprocessed fuel from weapons program reactors and therefore has slightly different characteristics when used in a reactor as compared to fresh uranium fuel. By making use of this fuel which would otherwise have been disposed of as waste the TVA is saving millions of dollars in fuel costs and accumulating a database of recycled uranium reactions in LWR use.

Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant Unit Three

Unit Three is a 1,113 MWe BWR built by General Electric which originally came online on August 18, 1976, and is licensed to operate through July 2, 2036. Unit Three generated 9.260078 TW·h, achieving a capacity factor of 99%.

Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant
Country United States
Locale Athens, Alabama
Coordinates 34°42′14″N 87°7′7″W / 34.70389°N 87.11861°W / 34.70389; -87.11861Coordinates / 34.70389; -87.11861
Status Operational
Construction began 1966–77
Commission date Unit 1: Dec. 20, 1973
Unit 2: Aug. 2, 1974
Unit 3: Aug. 18, 1976
Licence expiration Unit 1: Dec. 20, 2033
Unit 2: June 6, 2034
Unit 3: July 2, 2036
Operator(s) Tennessee Valley Authority
Architect(s) TVA

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3,297 MW
(3 reactors)
Reactor type(s) boiling water reactor
Reactor supplier(s) General Electric

Power generation information
Annual generation 21,227 GW·h

Takahama Nuclear Power Plant

The Takahama Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in the Ōi District in the Fukui Prefecture. Takahama Nuclear Power Plant is owned and operated by the Kansai Electric Power Company. The plant houses 4 nuclear reactors. Installed capacity on the Takahama Nuclear Power Plant is 3304 MW.

Reactors on Takahama Nuclear Power Plant

Name Reactor Type First Criticality Power Rating
Takahama - 1 PWR November 14, 1974 826 MW
Takahama - 2 PWR November 14, 1975 826 MW
Takahama - 3 PWR January 17, 1985 826 MW
Takahama - 1 PWR June 5, 1985 826 MW

Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

The Genkai Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Genkai in the Higashimatsuura District in the Saga Prefecture. It is owned and operated by the Kyūshū Electric Power Company.

Unit 3 has been selected as a special Plutonium fuel test case. The Genkai Nuclear Power Plant is on a site with a total of 0.87 square kilometers.

Reactors on Site

All reactors at the Genkai plant use low enriched (3-4%) Uranium dioxide fuel.

Name Reactor Type Power Rating Thermal Power Core Tonnage # of Fuel Assemblies Capital Costs
Genkai - 1 PWR 559 MW 1650 MW 48 tons 121 54,500,000,000 yen
Genkai - 2 PWR 559 MW 1650 MW 48 tons 121 123,600,000,000 yen
Genkai - 3 PWR 1180 MW 3423 MW 89 tons 193 399,300,000,000 yen
Genkai - 4 PWR 1180 MW 3423 MW 89 tons 193 324,400,000,000 yen

In 2010 there are plans to use plutonium fuel at unit 3.

Genkai Nuclear Power Plant
Country Japan
Coordinates 33°30′56″N 129°50′14″E / 33.51556°N 129.83722°E / 33.51556; 129.83722Coordinates: 33°30′56″N 129°50′14″E / 33.51556°N 129.83722°E / 33.51556; 129.83722
Construction began 1970
Commission date October 15, 1975
Owner(s) Kyūshū Electric Power Company
Operator(s) Kyushu Electric Power Company

Reactor information
Reactors operational 2 x 559 MW
2 x 1180 MW

Power generation information
Annual generation 25,380 GW·h
Net generation 407,958 GW·h

Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant

Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant is a Swedish nuclear power plant with 4 reactors, three pressurized water reactors and one boiling water reactor. Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant is situated on the Värö Peninsula (Swedish: Väröhalvön) in Varberg Municipality approximately 60 km south of Gothenburg. With a total power rating of 3560 MWe, it is the largest power plant in Sweden and generates 24 TWh of electricity a year, the equivalent of 20% of the electrical power usage of Sweden. It is owned 70% by Vattenfall and 30% by E.ON.

Following a number of security breaches and incidents since 2005, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority decided to put Ringhals under increased surveillance.

Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant
Country Sweden
Coordinates 57°15′35″N 12°6′39″E / 57.25972°N 12.11083°E / 57.25972; 12.11083Coordinates: 57°15′35″N 12°6′39″E / 57.25972°N 12.11083°E / 57.25972; 12.11083
Construction began 1969
Commission date January 1, 1976
Operator(s) Ringhals AB

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3,662 MW
(4 reactors)

Power generation information
Annual generation 27,021 GWh
Net generation 609,769 GWh

Bugey Nuclear Power Plant

The Bugey Nuclear Power Station is located in Bugey in the Saint-Vulbas commune (Ain), about 30 km from the Swiss border. The site occupies 100 hectares. It is on the edge of the Rhône River, from where it gets its cooling water, and is about 30 km upstream from Lyon. About 1,200 people work at the site.

The site houses 4 currently operating units, all being pressurized water reactors. The 5th reactor (unit 1) is currently being dismantled, it was the last UNGG reactor built in the world.

Some of the cooling comes from direct use of the Rhône water (units 2 and 3) while some is done by the use of cooling towers (units 4 and 5).

Seismic activity

According to reports from the Autorité de sûreté nucléaire, some safety functions may not be provided in the event of an earthquake, however The area is not known for its seismic activity.

In the last few years, the plant was modernized to updated earthquake resistance standards.

Heat dumping

During the heat wave on July 20, 2003 water was directly dumped into the Rhône, which is permitted in extreme cases, for about 2 hours and the maximum heat difference was 0.9 degrees Celsius. Again on July 30, 2003 water was directly discharged into the Rhône for 9 hours.


Reactor units of Bugey Nuclear Power Plant

Reactor Unit Type Average Output Rated Power Commercial operation Close of reactor
Bugey 1 Gas-cooled reactor 540 MW 555 MW 01-07-1972 27-05-1994
Bugey 2 PWR 910 MW 945 MW 01-03-1979 2019 planned
Bugey 3 PWR 910 MW 945 MW 01-03-1979 2019 planned
Bugey 4 PWR 880 MW 917 MW 01-07-1979 2019 planned
Bugey 5 PWR 880 MW 917 MW 30-01-1980 2020 planned


Bugey Nuclear Power Plant
Country France
Coordinates 45°47′54″N 5°16′15″E / 45.79833°N 5.27083°E / 45.79833; 5.27083Coordinates: 45°47′54″N 5°16′15″E / 45.79833°N 5.27083°E / 45.79833; 5.27083
Construction began 1964
Commission date April 15, 1972
Owner(s) EDF
Operator(s) EDF

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3,724 MW capacity
Reactors decomm. 555 MW capacity

Power generation information
Annual generation 25,654 GWh
Net generation 645,711 GWh

Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant

The Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant is a largest nuclear power plant in United States, located in Wintersburg, Arizona, about 45 miles (80 km) west of central Phoenix. It is the largest nuclear generation facility in the United States, averaging over 3.2 gigawatts (GW) of electrical power production in 2003 to serve approximately 4 million people. Arizona Public Service (APS) owns 29.1% of the station and operates the facility. Other owners include Salt River Project (17.5%), El Paso Electric Co. (15.8%), Southern California Edison (15.8%), PNM Resources (10.2%), Southern California Public Power Authority (5.9%), and the Los Angeles Dept. of Water & Power (5.7%).

The Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant facility is on 4,000 acres (16 km²) of land and consists of three Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors, each with an original capacity of 1.27 gigawatts electrical, current (2007) maximum capacity of 1.24 gigawatts electrical,[4] and typical operating capacity 70%–95% of this. The plant is a major source of power for Phoenix and Southern California, capable of serving about 4 million people. The plant provides about 35% of the electricity generated in Arizona each year. The plant was fully operational by 1988, taking twelve years to build and costing $5.9 billion, eventually employing 2,386 people. The plant employs 2,055 full-time on-site workers.

Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant supplies electricity at an operating cost (including fuel and maintenance) of 1.33 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour. This is cheaper than coal (2.26 cents/kW·h) or natural gas (4.54 cents/kW·h) in the region at the same time (2002), but more expensive than hydro (0.63 cents/kW·h). Assuming a 60-year plant life and 5% long-term cost of capital, the depreciation and capital costs not included in the previous marginal cost for Palo Verde are approximately another 1.4 cents per kilowatt-hour. In 2002, the wholesale value of the electricity produced was 2.5 cents/kW·h. By 2007, the wholesale value of electricity at the Palo Verde hub was 6.33 cents/kW·h.

Due to its location in the Arizona desert, Palo Verde is the only nuclear generating facility in the world that is not located adjacent to a large body of above-ground water. The facility evaporates water from the treated sewage of several nearby municipalities to meet its cooling needs. 20 billion US gallons (76,000,000 m³) of treated water are evaporated each year. This water represents about 25% of the annual overdraft of the Arizona Department of Water Resources Phoenix Active Management Area. At the nuclear plant site, the wastewater is further treated and stored in an 80 acre (324,000 m²) reservoir for use in the plant's cooling towers.

The nuclear steam supply for each unit was designed and supplied by Combustion Engineering, designated the System 80 standard design–a predecessor of the newer standard System 80+ design. Each primary system originally supplied 3.817 GW of thermal power to the secondary (steam) side of each plant. The design is a so-called 2 × 4, with each of four main reactor coolant pumps circulating more than 111,000 gallons per minute of primary-side water through 2 large steam generators.

The main turbine generators were supplied by General Electric and when installed were the largest in the world, capable of generating 1.447 GW of electricity each. They remain the largest 60 Hz turbine generators.

Bechtel Power Corporation was the Architect/Engineer/Constructor for the facility initially under the direction of the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (a joint APS/SRP endeavor), later managed exclusively by Arizona Public Service. Edwin E. Van Brunt was the key APS executive in charge of engineering, construction, and early operations of the plant. William E. Bingham was the Bechtel Chief Engineer for the project. Arthur von Boennighausen was one of the Owner's Representatives for Arizona Public Service.

Unlike most multi-unit nuclear power plants, each unit at Palo Verde is an independent power plant, sharing only a few minor systems. The reactor containment buildings are some of the largest in the world at about 2.6 million cubic feet (74,000 m3) enclosed. The three containment domes over the reactors are made of 4-foot (1.2 m) thick concrete.

The facility's design incorporates many features to enhance safety by addressing issues identified earlier in the operation of commercial nuclear reactors. The design is also one of the most spacious internally, providing exceptional room for the conduct of operations and maintenance by the operating staff.

The Palo Verde 500 kV switchyard is a key point in the western states power grid, and is used as a reference point in the pricing of electricity across the southwest United States. Many 500 kV power lines from companies like Southern California Edison and San Diego Gas & Electric send power generated at the plant to Los Angeles and San Diego via Path 46, respectively. In addition, due to both the strategic interconnections of the substation and the large size of the generating station, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council considers a simultaneous loss of 2 of the 3 units the worst case contingency for system stability.

The site was granted a construction permit for two additional units in the late 1970s, however these units were canceled in the mid-1980s for economical risk reasons. Contrary to popular belief, the two additional units would not have been on the same arc as the three existing units — they would have been arranged south of Unit 3 on a north-south axis. As originally conceived they would have used dry cooling towers rather than the forced-draft wet cooling towers used in the existing design.

Security

Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant was of such strategic importance, due to a variety of its features, that it and Phoenix were documented by the former Soviet Union as target locations in the event of nuclear conflict during the Cold War. In March 2003, National Guard troops were dispatched to protect the site during the launch of the Iraq war amidst fears of a terrorist attack.

The site team and nearby town of Wintersburg remain a key focus of work in regard to homeland security, ranking in importance along with Arizona's major cities, military bases, ports of entry, and tourist sites.

Security guards working for the utility are armed with semi-automatic weapons. They check identification and search vehicles entering the plant. Other security measures protect the reactors, including X-ray machines, explosive "sniffers", and heavy guarded turnstiles that require special identification to open. Armed guards, security checkpoints with machines, and bomb sensors are standard at every nuclear power plant in the US.

alo Verde Nuclear Generating Station
Country United States
Locale Wintersburg, Arizona
Coordinates 33°23′21″N 112°51′54″W / 33.389241°N 112.865081°W / 33.389241; -112.865081Coordinates: 33°23′21″N 112°51′54″W / 33.389241°N 112.865081°W / 33.389241; -112.865081
NRC region Region 4
Status Operational
Construction began 1976
Commission date 1988
Licence expires March 25, 2027 (Unit 3)
Construction cost $5.9 billion
Owner(s) Arizona Public Service (29.1%),
Salt River Project (17.5%),
El Paso Electric Co. (15.8%),
Southern California Edison (15.8%),
PNM Resources (10.2%),
Southern California Public Power Authority (5.9%),
Los Angeles Dept. of Water & Power (5.7%)
Operator(s) Arizona Public Service
Architect(s) Bechtel

Reactor information
Reactors operational 3
Reactors operational (MW) 3,875
Reactor types pressurized water reactor
Reactor supplier(s) Combustion Engineering

Installed capacity 3,739
Total generation (year) 2007
Net generation (for 1 yr) 26,782.391

Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

Darlington Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power plant located on the north shore of Lake Ontario in Clarington, Ontario. The facility derives its name from the Township of Darlington, the former name of the municipality in which it is located. The Darlington station is a large nuclear facility and comprises 4 CANDU nuclear reactors located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario, having a total output of 3,512 MWe (capacity net) when all units are online. It provides about 20 percent of Ontario's electricity needs, enough to serve a city of two million people. It is arguably one of the most advanced nuclear generating stations in the world.

Darlingtong Nuclear Power Plant Construction and Operation

The facility was constructed in stages between 1981–1993 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. Unit 2 was brought online in 1990, Unit 1 in 1992, and Units 3 and 4 in 1993. In April 1999 Ontario Hydro was split into 5 component Crown corporations with Ontario Power Generation (OPG) taking over all electrical generating stations and which continues to operate the Darlington station.

To most Ontarians, the Darlington station is associated with the massive cost overruns incurred during its construction. The initial cost estimate for the station was $3.9 billion CAD in the late 1970s, while the final cost was $14.4 billion CAD. The project was adversely affected by declining electricity demand forecasts, mounting debt of Ontario Hydro, and the Chernobyl disaster which necessitated safety reviews in mid-construction. A year-long period of public hearings and study by an Ontario government all-party committee finished in 1986 with the decision to proceed with the project, which had then risen to $7 billion in actual and committed costs. Discussion of who is to blame for the costs and subsequent debts associated with Darlington often arise during provincial election campaigns, and are often mentioned in anti-nuclear literature. The Darlington reactors have been among the best performing in OPG's CANDU fleet, including a top year in 2008 in which the plant achieved a combined 94.5% capacity factor.

The reactors are as follows:

DARLINGTON

  • DARLINGTON 1
  • DARLINGTON 2
  • DARLINGTON 3
  • DARLINGTON 4

New build proposal

OPG has also begun the process for building up to 4 new nuclear units at the site of its Darlington Nuclear Station. There is a lengthy approvals process in place including a full Environmental Assessment which will take 3–4 years to complete. If successful, the new units would go into service sometime around 2018. No decision has been made on what technology will be used.

In June 2009, the government of Ontario rejected all three bids submitted, leaving the status of the new builds up in the air.

Waste

The Darlington Waste Management Facility provides dry storage for the used fuel from Darlington, after an initial period in a water-filled storage bay. The facility was opened in 2007, reportedly on schedule and on budget. Ontario has proposed the construction and operation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Kincardine, Ontario for the long-term storage of low and intermediate level nuclear waste on lands adjacent to the Western Waste Management Facility in Kincardine, Ontario. Pending approvals and licensing by regulatory agencies, the DGR will commence construction in 2012 and operation in 2017/2018.

Darlingtong Nuclear Power Plant Awards and Recognition

2008: International Corporate Habitat of the Year Award (Wildlife Habitat Council)

2007: Performance Improvement Award (Institute of Nuclear Power Operators)

2007: 20th Anniversary Signatures of Sustainability Award (Wildlife Habitat Council)

2005: International Corporate Habitat of the Year Award (Wildlife Habitat Council)

Darlington Nuclear Generating Station
Country Canada
Locale Clarington, Ontario
Coordinates 43°52′22″N 78°43′11″W / 43.87278°N 78.71972°W / 43.87278; -78.71972Coordinates: 43°52′22″N 78°43′11″W / 43.87278°N 78.71972°W / 43.87278; -78.71972
Status O
Construction began 1981–93
Construction cost $14.4 billion CAD
Operator(s) Ontario Power Generation (OPG)

Reactor information
Reactors operational 4
Reactors operational (MW) 3,512
Reactor types CANDU